英文名：Acetic Acid GK Assay Kit (Analyser Format)
规格：110 mL of prepared reagent (e.g. 500 assays of 0.22 mL)
The Acetic Acid GK format test kit is for use with auto-analysers and is suitable for the specific measurement and analysis of acetic acid (acetate) especially in wines, fruit juices, beverages and food products.
As part of Megazyme’s overall commitment to providing the highest quality products, we have developed this acetic acid kit that provides a specific and rapid assay for use with auto-analysers. The kit assay is based on the conversion of NAD+ to NADH and therefore provides a positive reaction (increase in absorbance) which offers a more robust assay.
The reagents, as supplied, are stable for a minimum of 2 years and the prepared reagents are stable for a minimum of 1 week (on-board stability). In addition, the prepared reagents can be stored frozen for longer term stability
Q1. Is the acetic acid kit specific for acetate?
Propionate may react more slowly than acetate.
Q2. The pH of my sample is low (pH ~ 3.0), do I need to adjust this before I use the sample in the kit assay?
The final pH of the kit assay after the sample is added should not change from what it should be (as stated in the kit for the assay buffer). If it does change then the sample will require pH adjustment. In most cases the sample volume being used is low relative to the final assay volume and in this case the pH of the kit assay is unlikely to be affected.
Q3. How can I work out how much sample to extract and what dilution of my sample should be used in the kit assay?
Where the amount of analyte in a liquid sample is unknown, it is recommended that a range of sample dilutions are prepared with the aim of obtaining an absorbance change in the assay that is within the linear range.
Where solid samples are analysed, the weight of sample per volume of water used for sample extraction/preparation can be altered to suit, as can the dilution of the extracted sample prior to the addition of the assay, as per liquid samples.
Q4. Can you explain, step by step, how to follow the method and perform the kit assay?
For users who are not familiar with how to use the Megazyme tests kits then it is recommended that they follow this example, e.g. D-Fructose/D-Glucose Assay kit K-FRUGL (http://secure.megazyme.com/D-Fructose-D-Glucose-Assay-Kit):
1. The kit components are listed on pages 2-3 of the kit booklet.
2. Prepare the kit reagents as described on page 3.
3. For separate measurements of glucose and fructose follow procedure A on page 4.
4. Pipette the volumes listed for water, sample, solution 1 and solution 2 into 3 mL, 1 cm pathlength cuvettes. Duplicate sample assays and duplicate blanks are recommended. Mix the contents of each cuvette by inversion (seal the cuvette using parafilm or a plastic cuvette cap – do not use a finger) then after ~3 min record the first absorbance reading of each cuvette at 340 nm (this is reading A1).
5. Then add suspension 3 and mix the contents of each cuvette by inversion. Incubate for 5 minutes then record the absorbance reading of each cuvette at 340 nm (this is reading A2). NB. It is essential that the reaction is compete. To assess this, record the absorbances at ~ 2 minute intervals and until the absorbance plateaus. A stable absorbance indicates that the reaction is complete. If the absorbance continues to increase then continue to record absorbances until it plateaus and only then record absorbance reading A2.
6. Then add suspension 4 and mix the contents of each cuvette by inversion. Incubate for 5 minutes then take absorbance reading of each cuvette at 340 nm (this is reading A3). NB. As above, assess that the reaction has completed by take subsequent readings at ~2 min intervals.
7. For simple, automated results analysis, input the absorbance readings (A1, A2, A3) for samples and blanks into the K-FRUGL MegaCalc.
To ensure that the assay is working, and being performed correctly it is recommend that the test is performed using the standard sample that is provided with the kit and to obtain the expected values before proceeding to test real samples.
It is recommend that new users also watch this video which highlights how to perform the assays.
Many of the other Megazyme test kits follow a similar format.
Q5. I have some doubts about the appearance/quality of a kit component what should be done?
If there are any concerns with any kit components, the first thing to do is to test the standard sample (control sample) that is supplied with the kit and ensure that the expected value (within the accepted variation) is obtained before testing any precious samples. This must be done using the procedure provided in the kit booklet without any modifications to the procedure. If there are still doubts about the results using the standard sample in the kit then send example results in the MegaCalc spread sheet to your product supplier (Megazyme or your local Megazyme distributor).
Q6. How much sample should be used for the clarification/extraction of my sample?
The volume/weight of sample and total volume of the extract can be modified to suit the sample. This will ultimately be dictated by the amount of analyte of interest in the sample and may require empirical determination. For low levels of analyte the sample:extract volume ratio can be increased (i.e. increase the sample and/or decrease the total extraction volume).
Alternatively, for samples with low concentrations of analyte, a larger sample volume can be added to the kit assay. When altering the sample volume adjust the distilled water volume added to the assay accordingly so that the total assay volume is not altered.
Q7. Can the sensitivity of the kit assay be increased?
For samples with low concentrations of analyte the sample volume used in the kit assay can be increased to increase sensitivity. When doing this the water volume is adjusted to retain the same final assay volume. This is critical for the manual assay format because the assay volume and sample volume are used in the calculation of results.
Q8. Can the test kit be used to measure biological fluids and what sample preparation method should be used?
The kit assay may work for biological fluids assuming that inositol is present above the limit of detection for the kit after any sample preparation (if required). Centrifugation of the samples and use of the supernatant directly in the kit assay (with appropriate dilution in distilled water) may be sufficient. However, if required a more stringent sample preparation method may be required and examples are provided at the following link:http://www.megazyme.com/docs/analytical-applications-downloads/biological_samples_111109.pdf?sfvrsn=2
The test kit has not been tested using biological fluids as samples because it is not marketed or registered as a medical device. This will therefore require your own validation.
Q9. Can the manual assay format be scaled down to a 96-well microplate format?
The majority of the Megazyme test kits are developed to work in cuvettes using the manual assay format, however the assay can be converted for use in a 96-well microplate format. To do this the assay volumes for the manual cuvette format are reduced by 10-fold. The calculation of results for the manual assay format uses a 1 cm path-length, however the path-length in the microplate is not 1 cm and therefore the MegaCalc spreadsheet or the calculation provided in the kit booklet for the manual format cannot be used for the micropalate format unless the microplate reader being used can.
There a 3 main methods for calculation of results using the microplate format:
- The easiest method is to use a microplate reader that has a path-length conversion capability (i.e. the microplater reader can detect the path-length of each well and convert the individual readings to a 1 cm path-length). This will allow values to be calculated using the MegaCalc calculation software which can be found where the product is located on the Megazyme website.
- Perform a standard curve of the analyte on each microplate that contains test samples and calculate the result of the test samples from the calibration curve (concentration of analyte versus absorbance).
- Perform a standard curve of the analyte in both the cuvette format (i.e. with a 1 cm path-length) and the 96-well microplate format and use these results to obtain a mean conversion factor between the cuvette values and the microplate values. Subsequent assays in the microplate format can then be converted from the calculated conversion factor.
Q10. When using this kit for quantitative analysis what level of accuracy and repeatability can be expected?
The test kit is extremely accurate – at Megazyme the quality control criteria for accuracy and repeatability is to be within 2% of the expected value using pure analytes.
However, the level of accuracy is obviously analyst and sample dependent.
Q11. Must the minimum absorbance change for a sample always be at least 0.1?
No. The 0.1 change of absorbance is only a recommendation. The lowest acceptable change in absorbance can is dictated by the analyst and equipment (i.e. pipettes and spectrophotometer) and therefore can be can be determined by the user. With accurate pipetting, absorbance changes as low as 0.02 can be used accurately.
If a change in absorbance above 0.1 is required but cannot be achieved due to low concentrations of analyte in a sample, this can be overcome by using a larger sample volume in the assay to increase the absorbance change and thereby increase sensitivity of the assay. When doing this the increased volume of the sample should be subtracted from the distilled water volume that is added to the assay so that the total assay volume is unaltered. The increase sample volume should also be accounted for when calculating final results.
Q12. Can the sensitivity of the kit assay be increased?
Yes. Samples with the lower concentrations of analyte will generate a lower absorbance change. For samples with low concentrations of analyte, a larger sample volume can be used in the assay to increase the absorbance change and thereby increase sensitivity of the assay. When doing this the increased volume of the sample should be subtracted from the distilled water volume that is added to the assay so that the total assay volume is unaltered. The increase sample volume should also be accounted for when calculating final results.