英文名：Lactulose Assay Kit
The Lactulose Assay Kit is suitable for the specific, rapid and sensitive measurement and analysis of lactulose in milk and milk-based samples. Reagents included in this kit may also be prepared for use in the procedure described by ISO Method 11285:2004.
UV-method for the determination of Lactulose in milk and
foodstuffs containing dairy products
(1) Lactulose + H2O → D-galactose + D-fructose
(glucose oxidase + catalase + H2O2)
(2) D-Glucose + H2O + O2 → D-gluconic acid + H2O2
(3) D-Fructose + ATP → F-6-P + ADP
(4) F-6-P → G-6-P
(5) G-6-P + NADP+ → gluconate-6-phosphate + NADPH + H+
(6) Gluconate-6-phosphate + NADP+ → ribulose-5-phosphate + NADPH
+ CO2 + H+
Kit size: 50 assays
Method: Spectrophotometric at 340 nm
Reaction time: ~ 120 min
Detection limit: 4.8 mg/L
Milk, dairy products and foods containing milk
Method recognition: Novel method
- Twice the sensitivity of traditional hexokinase based lactulose methods
- Very cost effective
- All reagents stable for > 2 years after preparation
- Mega-Calc™ software tool is available from our website for hassle-free raw data processing
- Standard included
Q1. Sometimes a negative absorbance change is obtained for the blank samples, is this normal? Should the real value (negative absorbance change) or “0” be used in the calculation of results?
Sometimes the addition of the last assay component can cause a small negative absorbance change in the blank samples due to a dilution effect and in such cases it is recommended that the real absorbance values be used in the calculation of results.
Q2. Some samples generate values of A2 – A1 greater than 0.3?
Samples that generate absorbance values A2 – A1 of 0.3 should be diluted in distilled water prior to the Sample Preparation (section A, page 7) and the second incubation of step 2 increased (glucose oxidase / catalase) to 30 min.
Q3. What are the critical steps of the K-LACTUL assay kit?
Some critical steps of the assay are as follows:
A2 should be read after approximately 10 min and you should ensure that the reaction has finished, i.e. measure the absorbance until it stops increasing. (Slight increases in absorbance of 0.001/min or less are acceptable).
The supernatants from both steps (1 and 2) of A. Sample Preparation should be clear.
Q4. Can the K-LACTUL kit be used to measure samples other than milk-based samples?
The K-LACTUL kit will measure lactulose in most samples however it is the sample preparation prior to the Enzymatic Determination Reaction that is important. Megazyme has only tested milk-based samples, however most samples that do not contain high protein levels may work using the same standard procedure as described in the K-LACTUL data booklet. Samples containing very high levels of free fructose may not work.
Q5. Should the pH of the sample be adjusted even for samples in acidic media?
The pH of the assay solution after the sample is added should be the same as that of the assay buffer that is supplied with the kit.
Low sample volumes (e.g. 0.1 mL) are not likely to affect the pH of the assay solution and therefore may not require pH adjustment.
Samples above 0.1 mL are more likely to affect the pH of the assay solution and therefore the pH of these samples should be adjusted as described in the data booklet, prior to addition to the assay.
Q6. There is an issue with the performance of the kit; the results are not as expected.
If you suspect that the Megazyme test kit is not performing as expected such that expected results are not obtained please do the following:
- Ensure that you have tested the standard sample that is supplied with the Megazyme test kit.
- Send the results of the kit standard, blank samples and the results obtained for your sample, in the relevant MegaCalc spreadsheet (if available) to Megazyme (firstname.lastname@example.org). Where available the relevant MegaCalc spreadsheet can be downloaded from where the product appears on the Megazyme website.
- State the kit lot number being used (this is found on the outside of the kit box).
- State which assay format was used (refer to the relevant page in the kit booklet if necessary).
- State exact details of any modifications to the standard procedure that is provided by Megazyme.
- State the sample type and describe the sample preparation steps if applicable.
Q7. Is it possible to check where issues in the measurement of lactulose may be occurring?
If it is suspected that the measurements of K-LACTUL are not correct and there is doubt regarding the performance of the kit then the following steps should be checked.
1. Check that the cuvettes are 1.5 mL microcuvettes and that the volume of the liquid in the cuvettes is high enough for the spectrophotometer.
2. Check the temperature of the reactions is correct.
Using the standard lactulose/fructose solution (bottle 8) that is supplied with the kit will help determine where issues are occurring with the measurement of lactulose samples. The obvious steps where issues may occur are: A. Sample Preparation (page 7 K-LACTUL booklet) and B. Enzymatic Determination Reaction (page 8 K-LACTUL booklet).
3. The performance of K-LACTUL can be tested as follows:
(A. Sample Preparation (page 7 K-LACTUL booklet)
Use 0.5 mL of the standard lactulose /fructose solution (Bottle 8) which contains 0.1 mg/mL lactulose and 0.05 mg/mL fructose. The typical individual absorbance values are: A1 = 0.2, A2 = 0.2, A3 = 1.0. This should generate a final absorbance difference of (A3-A2) of approximately 0.8 (Note: this measurement includes the lactulose and fructose measurement and is not just lactulose content only).
Note: If the correct values are obtained for the performance of K-LACTUL then there is no need to check the performance of the Enzymatic Determination Reaction step separately.
4. The performance of the Enzymatic Determination Reaction step can be tested separately as follows:
B. Enzymatic Determination Reaction (page 8 K-LACTUL booklet)
This test uses 0.1 mL of the standard lactulose /fructose solution (Bottle 8) which contains 0.05 mg/mL fructose. This is equivalent to 5 μg of fructose added to the cuvette and should generate an absorbance difference (A3-A2) of approximately 0.3. If this absorbance difference is obtained then it can be concluded that the step is performing correctly.
B. ENZYMATIC DETERMINATION REACTION:
Wavelength: 340 nm
Cuvette: 1 cm light path (glass or plastic; 1.5 mL semi-micro)
Final volume: 1.16 mL
Sample solution: 0.65-65 μg of lactulose per cuvette (in 0.1-1.0 mL sample volume)
Read against air (without cuvette in the light path) or against water Pipette
Pipette into cuvettes
standard 8 (lactulose/fructose solution)
solution 3 (imidazole buffer)
solution 4 (NADP+/ATP)
Mix*, read absorbance of the solutions (A1) after approx. 3 min and start the reactions by addition of:
suspension 5 (HK/G-6-PDH)
suspension 6 (6-PGDH)
Mix*, read absorbance of the solutions (A2) at the end of the reaction (approx. 10 min). Then add:
suspension 7 (PGI)
Mix*, read absorbance of the solutions (A3) at the end of the reaction (approx. 15 min).
* for example with a plastic spatula or by gentle inversion after sealing the cuvette with a cuvette cap or Parafilm®.
Q8. How can I work out how much sample to extract and what dilution of my sample should be used in the kit assay?
Where the amount of analyte in a liquid sample is unknown, it is recommended that a range of sample dilutions are prepared with the aim of obtaining an absorbance change in the assay that is within the linear range.
Where solid samples are analysed, the weight of sample per volume of water used for sample extraction/preparation can be altered to suit, as can the dilution of the extracted sample prior to the addition of the assay, as per liquid samples.
Q9. I have some doubts about the appearance/quality of a kit component what should be done?
If there are any concerns with any kit components, the first thing to do is to test the standard sample (control sample) that is supplied with the kit and ensure that the expected value (within the accepted variation) is obtained before testing any precious samples. This must be done using the procedure provided in the kit booklet without any modifications to the procedure. If there are still doubts about the results using the standard sample in the kit then send example results in the MegaCalc spread sheet to your product supplier (Megazyme or your local Megazyme distributor).
Q10. Can the sensitivity of the kit assay be increased?
For samples with low concentrations of analyte the sample volume used in the kit assay can be increased to increase sensitivity. When doing this the water volume is adjusted to retain the same final assay volume. This is critical for the manual assay format because the assay volume and sample volume are used in the calculation of results.
Q11. Can the test kit be used to measure biological fluids and what sample preparation method should be used?
The kit assay may work for biological fluids assuming that inositol is present above the limit of detection for the kit after any sample preparation (if required). Centrifugation of the samples and use of the supernatant directly in the kit assay (with appropriate dilution in distilled water) may be sufficient. However, if required a more stringent sample preparation method may be required and examples are provided at the following link:http://www.megazyme.com/docs/analytical-applications-downloads/biological_samples_111109.pdf?sfvrsn=2
The test kit has not been tested using biological fluids as samples because it is not marketed or registered as a medical device. This will therefore require your own validation.
Q12. Can the manual assay format be scaled down to a 96-well microplate format?
The majority of the Megazyme test kits are developed to work in cuvettes using the manual assay format, however the assay can be converted for use in a 96-well microplate format. To do this the assay volumes for the manual cuvette format are reduced by 10-fold. The calculation of results for the manual assay format uses a 1 cm path-length, however the path-length in the microplate is not 1 cm and therefore the MegaCalc spreadsheet or the calculation provided in the kit booklet for the manual format cannot be used for the micropalate format unless the microplate reader being used can.
There a 3 main methods for calculation of results using the microplate format:
- The easiest method is to use a microplate reader that has a path-length conversion capability (i.e. the microplater reader can detect the path-length of each well and convert the individual readings to a 1 cm path-length). This will allow values to be calculated using the MegaCalc calculation software which can be found where the product is located on the Megazyme website.
- Perform a standard curve of the analyte on each microplate that contains test samples and calculate the result of the test samples from the calibration curve (concentration of analyte versus absorbance).
- Perform a standard curve of the analyte in both the cuvette format (i.e. with a 1 cm path-length) and the 96-well microplate format and use these results to obtain a mean conversion factor between the cuvette values and the microplate values. Subsequent assays in the microplate format can then be converted from the calculated conversion factor.
Q13. How much sample should be used for the clarification/extraction of my sample?
The volume/weight of sample and total volume of the extract can be modified to suit the sample. This will ultimately be dictated by the amount of analyte of interest in the sample and may require empirical determination. For low levels of analyte the sample:extract volume ratio can be increased (i.e. increase the sample and/or decrease the total extraction volume).
Alternatively, for samples with low concentrations of analyte, a larger sample volume can be added to the kit assay. When altering the sample volume adjust the distilled water volume added to the assay accordingly so that the total assay volume is not altered.
Q14. When using this kit for quantitative analysis what level of accuracy and repeatability can be expected?
The test kit is extremely accurate – at Megazyme the quality control criteria for accuracy and repeatability is to be within 2% of the expected value using pure analytes.
However, the level of accuracy is obviously analyst and sample dependent.
Q16. Can the sensitivity of the kit assay be increased?
Yes. Samples with the lower concentrations of analyte will generate a lower absorbance change. For samples with low concentrations of analyte, a larger sample volume can be used in the assay to increase the absorbance change and thereby increase sensitivity of the assay. When doing this the increased volume of the sample should be subtracted from the distilled water volume that is added to the assay so that the total assay volume is unaltered. The increase sample volume should also be accounted for when calculating final results.
Q15. Must the minimum absorbance change for a sample always be at least 0.1?
No. The 0.1 change of absorbance is only a recommendation. The lowest acceptable change in absorbance can is dictated by the analyst and equipment (i.e. pipettes and spectrophotometer) and therefore can be can be determined by the user. With accurate pipetting, absorbance changes as low as 0.02 can be used accurately.
If a change in absorbance above 0.1 is required but cannot be achieved due to low concentrations of analyte in a sample, this can be overcome by using a larger sample volume in the assay to increase the absorbance change and thereby increase sensitivity of the assay. When doing this the increased volume of the sample should be subtracted from the distilled water volume that is added to the assay so that the total assay volume is unaltered. The increase sample volume should also be accounted for when calculating final results.